Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant Ig isotype in serum and makes up approximately 80% of all serum immunoglobulins. In humans, there are four subclasses of IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), which are defined in the order of their relative concentration in normal serum. In mice, the IgG subclasses are designated as IgG1, IgG2a/c, IgG2b, and IgG3. Although structurally very similar, the subclasses differ in the number of disulfide bonds, length, and flexibility of the hinge region, as well as their functions. The IgG molecule consists of two heavy and two light chains, kappa or lambda.
IgY is the major circulating antibody found in birds, reptiles, amphibia, and lungfish and the counterpart to mammalian IgG as it has the same general structure. High levels of IgG antibodies are induced following the initial IgM response in a typical immune response to antigens. Due to its relative abundance and excellent specificity toward antigens, IgG is the primary antibody used in immunological research and clinical diagnostics. SouthernBiotech produces and validates an extensive range of monoclonal and polyclonal IgG (including IgG subclass and IgG isotype controls), and IgY purified immunoglobulins. Human, mouse, rabbit, goat, rat, hamster, canine, donkey, sheep, monkey, porcine, and chicken immunoglobulins are available in unconjugated and conjugated formats for use as standards and negative controls in applications such as ELISA, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and functional assays.